Makhovaya Sazhen. Conversion Chart

This conversion page features historical units (ancient, medieval, etc.) that are mostly no longer in use. If you are looking for units of length that are used today, including many national units of various countries, please switch to our main length conversion page.
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Metric

We only include several basic units here for you to convert historical units to contemporary ones. A more comprehensive list of metric units is available on the main length conversion page.
makhovaya sazhen to kilometer (km)
makhovaya sazhen to meter (m)
makhovaya sazhen to centimeter (cm)
makhovaya sazhen to millimeter (mm)
Units: kilometer (km)  / meter (m)  / centimeter (cm)  / millimeter (mm)
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The American System of Measures (US Customary Units)

We only include several basic units here for you to convert historical units to contemporary ones. A more comprehensive list of U.S. units is available on the main length conversion page.
makhovaya sazhen to mile (mi)
makhovaya sazhen to yard (yd)
makhovaya sazhen to inch (in)
Units: mile (mi)  / yard (yd)  / foot (ft)  / inch (in)
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Ancient Egypt

It might be hard to imagine, but these units dates back to 3100 BC. Egyptian people used them 5000 years ago. These units are distant ancestors of US customary units used today.
makhovaya sazhen to iteru (river measure)
makhovaya sazhen to knet (rod of cord)
makhovaya sazhen to nbiw (pole)
makhovaya sazhen to meh niswt (royal cubit)
makhovaya sazhen to meh nedjes (short cubit)
makhovaya sazhen to remen
makhovaya sazhen to djeser, bu
makhovaya sazhen to pedj-aa (large span)
makhovaya sazhen to pedj-sheser (small span)
makhovaya sazhen to amem (fist)
makhovaya sazhen to deret (hand)
makhovaya sazhen to shesep (palm)
makhovaya sazhen to djeba (finger)
Units: iteru (river measure)  / knet (rod of cord)  / nbiw (pole)  / meh niswt (royal cubit)  / meh nedjes (short cubit)  / remen  / djeser, bu  / pedj-aa (large span)  / pedj-sheser (small span)  / amem (fist)  / deret (hand)  / shesep (palm)  / djeba (finger)
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Ancient Greek

The values of Greek units varied according to location and epoch. Relative proportions though were generally the same. Greek measures were in general derived from measurement system of Ancient Egypt.
makhovaya sazhen to schoinos (σχοινός)
makhovaya sazhen to parasanges (παρασάγγες, league)
makhovaya sazhen to dolichos (δόλιχος)
makhovaya sazhen to milion (μίλιον)
makhovaya sazhen to hippikon (ἱππικόν)
makhovaya sazhen to diaulos (δίαυλος)
makhovaya sazhen to στάδιον, stadion
makhovaya sazhen to stadium olympic
makhovaya sazhen to stadium attic
makhovaya sazhen to stadium ptolemey
makhovaya sazhen to plethron (πλέθρον)
makhovaya sazhen to hamma (ἅμμα)
makhovaya sazhen to dekapous (δεκάπους)
makhovaya sazhen to akaina (ἄκαινα)
makhovaya sazhen to kalamos (κάλαμος)
makhovaya sazhen to orgyia (ὄργυια, fathom)
makhovaya sazhen to diploun bēma (διπλοῦν βῆμα, double pace)
makhovaya sazhen to haploun bēma (ἁπλοῦν βῆμα, single pace)
makhovaya sazhen to pēchys (πῆχυς, elbow)
makhovaya sazhen to pygōn (πυγών)
makhovaya sazhen to pygmē (πυγμή, forearm)
makhovaya sazhen to pous (πούς, foot)
makhovaya sazhen to spithamē (σπιθαμή, span of all fingers)
makhovaya sazhen to orthodōron (ὀρθόδωρον, wrist to the tip of meddle finger)
makhovaya sazhen to lichas (λιχάς)
makhovaya sazhen to hemipodion (ἡμιπόδιον)
makhovaya sazhen to dichas (διχάς, midfoot)
makhovaya sazhen to dōron (δῶρον)
makhovaya sazhen to palaiste (παλαιστή, palm)
makhovaya sazhen to kondylos (κόνδυλος, two fingers)
makhovaya sazhen to daktylos (δάκτυλος, finger)
Units: schoinos (σχοινός)  / parasanges (παρασάγγες, league)  / dolichos (δόλιχος)  / milion (μίλιον)  / hippikon (ἱππικόν)  / diaulos (δίαυλος)  / στάδιον, stadion  / stadium olympic  / stadium attic  / stadium ptolemey  / plethron (πλέθρον)  / hamma (ἅμμα)  / dekapous (δεκάπους)  / akaina (ἄκαινα)  / kalamos (κάλαμος)  / orgyia (ὄργυια, fathom)  / diploun bēma (διπλοῦν βῆμα, double pace)  / haploun bēma (ἁπλοῦν βῆμα, single pace)  / pēchys (πῆχυς, elbow)  / pygōn (πυγών)  / pygmē (πυγμή, forearm)  / pous (πούς, foot)  / spithamē (σπιθαμή, span of all fingers)  / orthodōron (ὀρθόδωρον, wrist to the tip of meddle finger)  / lichas (λιχάς)  / hemipodion (ἡμιπόδιον)  / dichas (διχάς, midfoot)  / dōron (δῶρον)  / palaiste (παλαιστή, palm)  / kondylos (κόνδυλος, two fingers)  / daktylos (δάκτυλος, finger)
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Ancient Roman

Roman length units were very well defined. The value of the base unit pes (foot) was discovered by John Greaves in 1639 after he made a lot of measurements in the ruins of Rome. Since then we know that the value of one pes was between 0.967 and 0.986 English feet. An accepted modern value is 296 mm. For most Roman units below we give an English equivalent in parentheses.
makhovaya sazhen to schœnus (rush rope)
makhovaya sazhen to leuga (league)
makhovaya sazhen to mille passus (mile)
makhovaya sazhen to stadium (stade, furlong)
makhovaya sazhen to actus
makhovaya sazhen to decempeda
makhovaya sazhen to pertica (perch)
makhovaya sazhen to passus (pace)
makhovaya sazhen to pes sestertius
makhovaya sazhen to gradus (step)
makhovaya sazhen to cubitus (cubit)
makhovaya sazhen to palmipes
makhovaya sazhen to pes (foot)
makhovaya sazhen to palmus major (palm length)
makhovaya sazhen to palmus (palm width)
makhovaya sazhen to uncia (inch)
makhovaya sazhen to pollex (thumb)
makhovaya sazhen to digitus (finger)
Units: schœnus (rush rope)  / leuga (league)  / mille passus (mile)  / stadium (stade, furlong)  / actus  / decempeda  / pertica (perch)  / passus (pace)  / pes sestertius  / gradus (step)  / cubitus (cubit)  / palmipes  / pes (foot)  / palmus major (palm length)  / palmus (palm width)  / uncia (inch)  / pollex (thumb)  / digitus (finger)
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Biblical

makhovaya sazhen to cubit
makhovaya sazhen to span
makhovaya sazhen to handbreadth
makhovaya sazhen to etzbah
Units: cubit  / span  / handbreadth  / etzbah
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Old Spanish

In various provinces of Spain diferent variations of units were used. The conversions below use Castilian system. Although most of these units are now obsolete, some can still be used today in the countries of Latin America.
makhovaya sazhen to legua de por grado (league of the degree)
makhovaya sazhen to legua marina (nautical)
makhovaya sazhen to legua
makhovaya sazhen to milla marina (nautical)
makhovaya sazhen to milla
makhovaya sazhen to cuerda of Valencia
makhovaya sazhen to cuerda
makhovaya sazhen to estadal
makhovaya sazhen to braza
makhovaya sazhen to paso
makhovaya sazhen to vara
makhovaya sazhen to codo de ribera
makhovaya sazhen to codo
makhovaya sazhen to pie
makhovaya sazhen to palmo
makhovaya sazhen to coto
makhovaya sazhen to pulgada
makhovaya sazhen to linea
makhovaya sazhen to punto
Units: legua de por grado (league of the degree)  / legua marina (nautical)  / legua  / milla marina (nautical)  / milla  / cuerda of Valencia  / cuerda  / estadal  / braza  / paso  / vara  / codo de ribera  / codo  / pie  / palmo  / coto  / pulgada  / linea  / punto
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Old Portuguese

These units were used in Portugal, Brazil and other countries of the Portuguese Empire until the adoption of the metric system in 19th century.
makhovaya sazhen to braça
makhovaya sazhen to toesa
makhovaya sazhen to passo geométrico
makhovaya sazhen to vara
makhovaya sazhen to côvado
makhovaya sazhen to pé
makhovaya sazhen to palmo de craveira
makhovaya sazhen to polegada
makhovaya sazhen to linha
makhovaya sazhen to ponto
Units: braça  / toesa  / passo geométrico  / vara  / côvado  /  / palmo de craveira  / polegada  / linha  / ponto
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Old French

There were many local variations; the following are Quebec and Paris definitions
makhovaya sazhen to lieue commune
makhovaya sazhen to lieue marine
makhovaya sazhen to lieue de post
makhovaya sazhen to lieue metrique
makhovaya sazhen to arpent
makhovaya sazhen to perche
makhovaya sazhen to toise
makhovaya sazhen to pied [foot]
makhovaya sazhen to pouce [inch]
makhovaya sazhen to ligne
Units: lieue commune  / lieue marine  / lieue de post  / lieue metrique  / arpent  / perche  / toise  / pied [foot]  / pouce [inch]  / ligne
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Old German (Prussian)

These units were used before adoption of metric system in 1872.
makhovaya sazhen to meile
makhovaya sazhen to ruthe
makhovaya sazhen to elle
makhovaya sazhen to fuss
makhovaya sazhen to zoll
makhovaya sazhen to linie
Units: meile  / ruthe  / elle  / fuss  / zoll  / linie
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Old Austrian

These units were used before adoption of metric system in 1871.
makhovaya sazhen to meile
makhovaya sazhen to ruthe
makhovaya sazhen to klafner
makhovaya sazhen to fuss
makhovaya sazhen to zoll
makhovaya sazhen to linie
makhovaya sazhen to punkt
Units: meile  / ruthe  / klafner  / fuss  / zoll  / linie  / punkt
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Old Swedish

Common measurement system was introduced in Sweden by law in 1665. Since then the system was slightly altered twice: in 1735 and 1855. Sweden switched to metric system in 1889.
makhovaya sazhen to nymil (new mile, used since 1889 till now)
makhovaya sazhen to mil (mile)
makhovaya sazhen to fjärdingsväg
makhovaya sazhen to rev before 1855
makhovaya sazhen to rev after 1855
makhovaya sazhen to stång
makhovaya sazhen to famn (fanthom)
makhovaya sazhen to aln (forealrm)
makhovaya sazhen to fot (foot)
makhovaya sazhen to kvarter
makhovaya sazhen to tvärhand (hand)
makhovaya sazhen to tum (thumb or inch) before 1855
makhovaya sazhen to tum (thumb or inch) after 1855
makhovaya sazhen to linje (line) before 1855
makhovaya sazhen to linje (line) after 1855
Units: nymil (new mile, used since 1889 till now)  / mil (mile)  / fjärdingsväg  / rev before 1855  / rev after 1855  / stång  / famn (fanthom)  / aln (forealrm)  / fot (foot)  / kvarter  / tvärhand (hand)  / tum (thumb or inch) before 1855  / tum (thumb or inch) after 1855  / linje (line) before 1855  / linje (line) after 1855

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